Glipizide is in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas that is used to help control blood
sugar levels. It is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet, exercise, and
Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor if you have the following medical conditions:
kidney disease; liver disease; thyroid disease; type 1 diabetes; serious infection, illness,
or injury; or need surgery. You may not be able to take glipizide, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.
Special precautions to patients 65 years of age and older which may have a stronger reaction to glipizide and may require a reduced dose. In gestational diabetes, insulin is usually the drug of choice to control blood sugar. Glipizide is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether glipizide will be harmful to an unborn baby or whether it passes into breast milk. Do not take glipizide without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment or if you breast-feeding a baby.
Take glipizide exactly as directed by your doctor to get the most benefit. It is usually taken before breakfast if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it is taken multiple times each day. In cases of Glucotrol XL extended release tablets (glipizide extended release tablets), it should be swallowed whole. Do not chew, divide, or crush the tablets. Do not be concerned if something that looks like a tablet occasionally appears in the stool. The medication is contained in a non-absorbable shell that has been specially designed to slowly release the drug so the body can absorb it. When this process is completed, the empty tablet is eliminated from the body.
Symptoms of a glipizide overdose include hunger, nausea, anxiety, cold sweats, weakness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, and coma. These are symptoms of hypoglycemia, so always keep hard, sugary candy; chocolate; fruit juice; or glucose tablets on hand to treat episodes of low blood sugar. Seek emergency consult if an overdose of glipizide is suspected.
What should I avoid while taking glipizide?
1. Changing your diet, medication, and exercise routines. These can affect blood sugar
2. Alcohol use because it lowers blood sugar and may interfere with your diabetes
3. Any surgery, tell your doctor and dentist before you undergo any surgical procedure.
4. Intake of any prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy, pain, or
weight loss medications without first talking to your doctor.
Dangerous side effects of glipizide which necessitates emergency medical attention
is an allergic reaction manifested as difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; or hives.
Other, less serious side effects from glipizide result mostly from blood sugar levels that are either too high or too low. You should be familiar with the symptoms of both high and low blood sugar levels and know how to treat both conditions. Low blood sugar may occur when too much glipizide is taken; when meals are missed or delayed; if you exercise more than usual; during illness, especially with vomiting or diarrhea; if you take other medications; after drinking alcohol; and in other situations. Hypoglycemia or Low blood sugar has the following symptoms: shaking; headache; cold sweats; pale, cool skin; anxiety; and difficulty concentrating. Always keep hard, sugary candy; chocolate; fruit juice; or glucose tablets on hand to treat episodes of low blood sugar.
Increased blood sugar may occur when not enough glipizide is taken; if you eat significantly more food than usual; if you exercise less than usual; if you take other medications; during fever or other illness; and in other situations. Hyperglycemia or High blood sugar has the following symptoms: increased thirst (polydipsia), increased hunger (polyphagia) , and increased urination (polyuria).
Long-term use of glipizide had shown an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) complications when compared to the treatment of diabetes with diet or diet plus insulin. Talk to your doctor about any unusual side effects.
Many other medicines may increase or decrease the effects of glipizide or affect your condition. Discuss to your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:
aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/ choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan), or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol); a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve), and others; a sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil); a beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor), and others; a diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril), and others;
a steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others), and others;
a phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan), and others; phenytoin (Dilantin); isoniazid (Nydrazid); or prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy, or weight loss medications. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.
The chemical abstracts name of glipizide is 1-cyclohexyl-3-[[p-(2- (5-methylpyrazinecarboxamido)ethyl]phenyl] sulfonyl]urea. The molecular formula is C21H27N5O4S; the molecular weight is 445.55. Immediate Release Tablets: Each immediate release tablet, for oral administration contains glipizide, 5 mg or 10 mg and the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide and stearic acid. Extended Release Tablets: Inert ingredients in the formulations are: polyethylene oxide, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, sodium chloride, red ferric oxide, cellulose acetate, polyethylene glycol, opadry white and black ink.
Glipizide has the following structural formula: