Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones that works by fighting bacteria in the body termed as bactericidal agents. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections such as infections in the respiratory tract, ears, eyes, kidneys and or urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital organs, abdominal cavity, skin and soft tissues, bones, joints and sepsis.
Special precautions: epileptics or seizure disorders, history of central nervous system (CNS) disorders , joint problems, kidney disease, a history of allergic reactions to an antibiotic. If you have any of these conditions, you may not be able to use ciprofloxacin or you may need a dosage adjustment or special tests during treatment. Pregnancy and lactation. Ciprofloxacin is under FDA pregnancy category C: This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not use ciprofloxacin without telling your doctor if you are pregnant, nursing an infant or if you become pregnant during treatment . This drug may also affect your ability to drive or operate machines especially if taken in combination with alcohol. Avoid caffeine while you are taking ciprofloxacin, because the medication can make the effects of caffeine stronger.
Do not take ciprofloxacin with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink dairy products or calcium-fortified juice with a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking ciprofloxacin. They could make the medication less effective. Take all of the ciprofloxacin that has been prescribed for you even if you begin to feel better. Your symptoms may start to improve before the infection is completely treated.
Overdose symptoms may include: seizures, urination problems, weakness, or blue lips with pale skin. Seek emergency consult once you suspect an overdose with ciprofloxacin.
Serious adverse reaction: signs of allergic reaction (difficulty of breathing, swelling of the lips, face, tongue and throat), seizure; confusion, hallucinations, depression or thoughts of hurting yourself or others; sudden pain or joint swelling (arm or ankle); stomach pain, low fever, lost of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowish discoloration of the skin or eyes); watery or bloody diarrhea; urinating more or less than usual; numbness or tingling sensation or unusual pain anywhere in your body; chest pain, pounding or fast heartbeats (tachycardia).
Less serious side effects which are more likely to occur are: nausea, vomiting, dizziness or drowsiness, blurred vision, sleep problems (insomnia), joint stiffness or muscle pain, increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight that may lead to sunburn. . Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight, sunlamps, or tanning beds. Wear protective clothing and use a sunscreen if you must be out in the sun.
Drug interactions: Do not use ciprofloxacin if you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex).
Certain medicines should be taken at least 2 hours after or 6 hours before you take ciprofloxacin. This includes didanosine (Videx) chewable/ buffered tablets or powder; sucralfate (Carafate); antacids that contain calcium, magnesium or aluminum (such as Tums or Rolaids); or vitamin or mineral supplements that contain calcium, iron, or zinc.
Before taking ciprofloxacin, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following drugs:
didanosine (Videx, ddI);
theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair, Slo-Phyllin, Slo-Bid, Elixophyllin);
insulin or an oral diabetes medication such as glibenclamide, glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase), and others;
a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox), ketoprofen (Orudis KT, Orudis, Oruvail), and others;
phenytoin (Dilantin); or
cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
There may be other drugs not listed that can affect ciprofloxacin. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors.
Ciprofloxacin is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3- quinolinecarboxylic acid. Its empirical formula is C17H18FN3O3 and its molecular weight is 331.4. It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance. CIPRO film-coated tablets are available in 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg (ciprofloxacin equivalent) strengths. Ciprofloxacin tablets are white to slightly yellowish. The inactive ingredients are cornstarch, microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and water. Ciprofloxacin Oral Suspension is available in 5% (5 g ciprofloxacin in 100 mL) and 10% (10 g ciprofloxacin in 100 mL) strengths. Ciprofloxacin Oral Suspension is a white to slightly yellowish suspension with strawberry flavor which may contain yellow-orange droplets. It is composed of ciprofloxacin microcapsules and diluent which are mixed prior to dispensing (See instructions for use/handling).
Ciprofloxacin has the following structural formula: