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  Std

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is also known as sexually transmissible diseases, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or infrequently, venereal disease (VD) or social disease. These are the diseases in which the main mode of transmission between individuals is by means of sexual contact (vaginal intercourse, oral sex and/or anal sex). The most commonly used term is sexually transmitted disease (STD) specifically refers only to infections that are causing symptoms or problems.

Sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases


Sexually transmitted infections are more easily transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva (external genitalia) and the mouth. In contrast to the skin, mucous membrane allow certain bacteria or virus into the body more easily. An example of a mucous membrane is the visible membrane covering the head of the penis. This is one of the reasons that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sexual intercourse than by more casual means of transmission. (e.g. hand contact). Therefore, all sexual activities that involve contact with another person or the bodily fluids (e.g. saliva, semen) of another person should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. It is suggested by healthcare professionals that safe sex should be practiced such as the use of condoms as barrier method, the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but this is not an absolute safeguard. It is still abstinence from sexual activities involving other people will give absolute protection from acquiring sexually transmitted infections. Multiple sexual partners or engaging in sexual promiscuity remains to be an important factor in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, prostitutes with large number of sexual partners without practicing safe sex has often been associated with the rampant spread of STDs. Travelers such as truck drivers and sailors also often have high number of sexual partners which put them at risk of potentially sexually transmitted diseases. So it is important whatever may be the nature of the sexual relationship is to practice safe sex. The possibility of asymptomatic carrier of sexually transmitted diseases may also happen. This means that the individual has the disease without any manifestations at all. In women, there is a condition known as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a sexually transmitted disease that causes serious complications such as: infertility due to blocked fallopian tubes brought about by chronic inflammation and eventually fibrosis; Fitz-Hugh Curtis syndrome (liver involvement presenting with right upper quadrant abdominal pain); risk of ectopic pregnancy. Other mode of transmission

The following are the list of the most common sexually transmitted diseases; some diseases on the list can be transmitted with other modes aside from sexual contact for example, HIV/AIDS is also transmitted through sharing of infected needles by drug users, maternal to fetal transmission through the placenta and blood transfusion.

Bacterial
• Chancroid (Haemophillius ducreyi)
• Chlamydia infection (Chlamydia trachomatis)
• Donovanosis (Granuloma inguinale or Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)
• Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
• Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2, L3.)
• Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) (Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis)
• Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

Viral
• Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
• Hepatitis B. Note that Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fæcal-oral route, not sexually; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable, and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission.
• Herpes simplex virus/Herpes (HSV)
• Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS)
• Human papillomavirus (HPV)
o Certain strains of HPV cause genital warts or veneral warts
o Certain strains of HPV cause cervical dysplasias which can lead to cervical cancer
• Molluscum contagiosum (MC)

Parasites
• Pubic lice a.k.a "crabs" or Phthiriasis (Phthirius pubis)
• Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)

Fungal
• Candidiasis (thrush) (Candida albicans) is not strictly an STD but can be transmitted through sexual contact

Protozoal
• Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases involves use of the following class of drugs: antibiotics, antiviral, anti-parasitic and antifungal agents. The aim is selective toxicity and the most important factor is determining the identity of the pathogen or the causative organism to identify the most effective treatment.

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