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  Neurological disorder

The nervous system is considered to be the most complex organ system in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and directing the complex processes of the body’s internal environment and acts as the body’s link with the outside world. Neurological disorders are disorders affecting the two major divisions of the nervous system, namely the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system comprises the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all the 31 pairs of peripheral nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates much of the internal homeostasis is the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Neurologists also diagnose and treat conditions associated with the autonomic nervous system.

Neurological disorder
Neurological disorder


Neurologic disorders encompass areas that cover, among other things, hereditary and congenital pathologies, demyelinating and degenerative disorders, infections, and neoplasms. Major neurological conditions include the following: headache disorders such as migraine, cluster headache and tension headache (the most common) ; epilepsy and seizure disorders; neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease and ataxia; cerebrovascular diseases such as transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) also known as strokes or brain attack which is either ischemic or hemorrhagic in nature; sleep disorders (insomnia); cerebral palsy (CP), a non-progressive disorder of voluntary and posture control; CNS infections such as encephalitis, meningitis and peripheral neuritis; brain abscess; herpetic meningoencephalitis, aspergilloma and cerebral hydatic cyst ; PNS infections , such as tetanus and botulism; neoplasms such as glioblastoma multiforme which is the most malignant brain tumor, spinal cord tumors, peripheral nerves tumor (acoustic neuroma); movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, chorea, hemiballismus, tic disorder, and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; CNS demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis, and of the peripheral nervous system, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) ; spinal cord disorders e.g. tumors, infections, trauma, malformations such as myelocele, meningomyelocele, myelomeningocele; peripheral nerve disorders like Bell palsy (CN VII) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) involving the median nerve, myopathy and neuromuscular junctions problem (e.g. myasthenia gravis); traumatic injuries to the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves ; altered mental status, encephalopathy, stupor and coma ; lastly, any speech and language disorders (expressive or receptive aphasia).

A complete neurological examination entails the neurologist to first review the patient's medical history with special focus to the present condition prior to a neurological exam. Generally, the exam tests cranial nerves, level of consciousness, motor strength, coordination, deep tendon reflexes and sensation. Additional mental status examination may be needed to assess cognitive function in psychiatric, geriatric and even in a healthy aged patient to uncover early signs of dementia. Findings of the neurologic exam help the neurologist determine if the problem is indeed in the nervous system. Further tests like the lumbar puncture also known as spinal tap may be needed to confirm a diagnosis or find a specific treatment.

Neurologic cases with depressed level of consciousness or alertness can result from a wide variety of causes, some intracranial (trauma, hemorrhage, infection, neoplasm, vascular obstruction, increased intracranial pressure) and some systemic (anoxia, hypercapnia, shock, drugs, chemical poisons, electrolyte imbalance, hepatic or renal failure). Various grades of impaired consciousness may be distinguished as clouding or blunting of sensorium, drowsiness or somnolence, stupor, semicoma, and deep coma. Coma demands vigorous diagnostic efforts by means of obtaining a thorough history and physical examination with emphasis on neurologic findings, fundoscopic examination, blood and urine studies, lumbar puncture, EEG, and head imaging. A widely used measure of level of consciousness is the Glasgow Coma Scale. Treatment of coma includes attention to airway, respiratory function, and circulation, and vigorous efforts to reverse or eliminate identifiable causes.

When surgical intervention is required, the neurologist may refer the patient to a neurosurgeon, an interventional neuroradiologist, or a neurointerventionalist. A neurosurgeon usually manages initially patients with acute head trauma cases but may refer them to neuorologists and rehabilitation medicine for co-management. Headache disorders can be treated by general practitioners or family medicine specialists.

Bipolar Disorder :: Cerebral edema :: Neuritis :: Status epilepticus



Diazepam tablets

Diazepam

Diazepam, one of a group of drugs known as Benzodiazepines, is a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant. Diazepam is used as an Amnestic, an Anitanxiety Agent, Anticonvulsant, an Antipanic and Antitremor Agent, a Sedative, and Muscle Relaxant. It is used more...

Clonazepam tablets

Clonazepam

Clonazepam, known also as Klonopin, is one of a group of drugs known as Benzodiazepines that are Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants. Clonazepam is used to relieve anxiety, and to treat panic disorder. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies more...

Valium tablets

Valium

Valium, may also be called Diazepam, and is one of the Benzodiazepine group of medicines. These are Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants and are used to relieve anxiety. Valium is also used to help relax muscles or relieve muscle spasm. Valium injecti more...

Methamphetamine tablets

Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine is one of a group of medicines known as Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulants. They are used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methamphetamines are also used in the treatment of Narcolepsy, a sleeping disorder. more...

Adderall tablets

Adderall

Adderall (also known as Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine) is one of a group of medicines known as Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulants. They are used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Amphetamines are also more...

Neurontin capsules

Neurontin

Neurontin, also known as Gabapentin, is used to help control some types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to manage pain that occurs after shingles, a condition known as Postherpetic Neuralgia. Be sure to tell your doctor of any more...

Concerta tablets

Concerta

Also known as Methylphenidate, Concerta belongs to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. It is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy by increasing attention and decreasing restlessne more...

Gabapentin capsules

Gabapentin

Gabapentin, also known as Neurontin is used to help control some types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to manage pain that occurs after shingles, a condition known as Postherpetic Neuralgia. Be sure to tell your doctor of any more...

Klonopin tablets

Klonopin

Klonopin, known also as Clonazepam, is one of a group of drugs known as Benzodiazepines that are Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants. Klonopin is used to relieve anxiety, and to treat panic disorder. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies yo more...

Methylphenidate tablets

Methylphenidate

Concerta, also known as Methylphenidate, belongs to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. It is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy by increasing attention and decreasing restlessn more...

Phenytoin

Phenytoin

Phenytoin is an anti-epileptic. It works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Phenytoin is used to control seizures. You may not be able to take phenytoin, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment i more...

Provigil

Provigil

Provigil, or Modafinil, is used to help people who have narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hyponea, or shift work sleep disorder to stay awake during the day. Provigil does not cure these conditions and will only work as long as you continue to take it. more...

Ritalin

Ritalin

Methylphenidate belongs to the group of medicines called Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulants used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ritalin increases attention and decreases restlessness, and is used as part of a larger treatme more...

K-Dur tablets

K-Dur

K-Dur, sometimes called Potassium Chloride, is used to supplement Potassium that is needed to maintain good health. Although a balanced diet usually supplies all the potassium a person needs, K-Dur is used by patients who do not have enough potassium in more...

Lamictal tablets

Lamictal

Lamictal, or Lamotrigine, is used to help control some seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It can also be used in the treatment of bipolar disorder in adults older than 18 years of age. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether i more...

Modafinil

Modafinil

Modafinil improve wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder (SWSD); adjunctive therapy for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). more...

Abilify tablet

Abilify

Abilify is one of a group of medicines called antipsychotics. It is also known as Aripiprazole, and is used to schizophrenia, and the manic phase of bipolar disorder. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medication more...

Aripiprazole tablets

Aripiprazole

Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic medication, indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder (manic depression), and maintenance therapy for bipolar I disorder. It works by changing the actions of ch more...

Azmacort

Azmacort

Azmacort, or Triamcinolone, is one of a group of Inhalation Corticosteroids used to help prevent the symptoms of asthma. When used regularly, inhalation corticosteroids decrease the number and severity of asthma attacks, but will not relieve an asthma att more...

Depakote tablets

Depakote

Depakote, also called Divalproex, belongs to a class of medicines called Anticonvulsants that are used in the treatment of epilepsy. Depakote is also an Antimanic, and is used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder, and as a deterrent to migraine he more...

Dilantin capsules

Dilantin

Hydantoin anticonvulsants like Dilantin (Phenytoin) are used most often in the treatment of Epilepsy. Dilantin is also used as an Antiarrhythmic, an Antineuralgic, and a Muscle Relaxant. Dilantin works in the Central Nervous System (CNS) to reduce the sym more...

Divalproex sodium

Divalproex sodium

Divalproex sodium affects chemicals in the body that may be involved in causing seizures. It is used to treat various types of seizure disorders. Divalproex sodium is sometimes used together with other seizure medications. Divalproex sodium may also be more...

Klor-Con tablets

Klor-Con

Klor-Con 10, sometimes called Potassium Chloride, is used to supplement Potassium that is needed to maintain good health. Although a balanced diet usually supplies all the potassium a person needs, Klor-Con 10 is used by patients who do not have enough po more...

Lamotrigine

Lamotrigine

The exact mechanism of action of lamotrigine is unknown. However, it is believed that lamotrigine affects chemicals in the brain involved in seizures and in bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is used alone or in combination with other medications in the trea more...

Lithium

Lithium

Lithium is used to treat the manic stage of bipolar disorder. Lithium is used to reduce the frequency and severity of manic states. Lithium may also reduce the frequency and severity of depression in bipolar disorder. It is not known how Lithium works more...

Natalizumab

Natalizumab

Natalizumab is in a class of drug known as monoclonal antibody. This medicine affects the actions of the body's immune system. Natalizumab is used in to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, a demyelinating neurologic disease. more...

Phenergan tablets

Phenergan

Phenergan, also called Promethazine, is a Phenothiazine-derivative antihistamine used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever and other types of allergy. They work by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine that can cause itching, s more...

Prednisone tablets

Prednisone

Prednisone and other Corticosteroids are used to provide relief for inflamed areas of the body. They lessen swelling, redness, itching, and allergic reactions. They are often used as part of the treatment for a number of different diseases, such as severe more...

Promethazine tablets

Promethazine

Promethazine, one of a group called Phenothiazines, is used to treat serious mental and emotional disorders, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Some are used also to control agitation in certain patients, severe nausea and vomiting, se more...

Risperdal tablets

Risperdal

Risperdal, or Risperidone, is an antipsychotic, and is used to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medication or food, preservatives, or dyes. Tell your d more...

Risperidone

Risperidone

Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the effects of chemicals in the brain. It also used for the treatment of schizophrenia and mania associated with bipolar disorder. It may be used for purposes other than those listed in this more...

Temazepam capsules

Temazepam

Temazepam, one of a group of drugs known as Benzodiazepines, is a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant. Temazepam is used as an Amnestic, an Anitanxiety Agent, Anticonvulsant, an Antipanic and Antitremor Agent, a Sedative, and Muscle Relaxant. It is us more...

Topamax tablet

Topamax

Topamax, or Topiramate, is used to control some seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to help prevent migraine headaches in adults. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medication or food, preservative more...

Topiramate

Topiramate

Topiramate believed that alters the chemical impulses in the brain that cause seizures. The exact works of topiramate is unknown. This helps to control seizures and it also used to prevent migraine headaches. Before taking the topiramate you should tel more...

Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is in a class of drugs called steroids. Triamcinolone reduces swelling and decreases the body's immune response. Triamcinolone is used to treat endocrine disorders when the body does not produce enough of its own steroids. I more...

Tysabri

Tysabri

Also known as Natalizumab, Tysabri is used in the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS). This medicine may extend the time between relapses. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medicatio more...

Verapamil capsules

Verapamil

Verapamil is a Calcium Channel Blocking Agent that words by affecting the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels. This relaxes blood vessels and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload. more...




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