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Hypertension, often referred to as high blood pressure is a condition in which the blood pressure is consistently and chronically high. In formal terms, hypertension is referred to as arterial hypertension. Without any qualifier – when using just the word hypertension – it is assumed to mean arterial hypertension.

Hypertension Heart diseases

Untreated hypertension is a significant risk factor for heart attack, heart failure, aneurysm of the arteries, strokes and renal (kidney) failure. Hypertension has a classification of essential or secondary. Essential hypertension is used when the cause of the hypertension is due to no specific underlying condition. Secondary hypertension is one in which the ‘hypertension’ is secondary to the primary condition of the patient – such as renal disease or specific tumors.

Blood pressure that is sustained over a significant period time at 140/90 mmHg or above, measured in both arms is diagnosed as hypertension.


Hypertension is generally symptom less and is discovered incidentally by healthcare professionals.

Malignant hypertension is accelerated hypertension and is a symptom of late phases hypertension. It can manifest as headaches, blurred vision and end-organ damage. Hypertension can be confused with stress, anxiety and mental tension. Chronic anxiety can be associated with people who have hypertension, but it is not a single cause of hypertension.


In order to diagnose hypertension, blood pressure needs to be measured over time – such as two weeks and in each arm. The measurement that defines hypertension is a blood pressure under these measurement conditions that is at 140/90 mmHg or higher.


There are a few theories that exist as to the cause of hypertension are: an overactive rennin/angiotension system – which causes the body to retain sodium(salt) and water and constriction of blood vessels; failure of kidneys to filter or excrete sodium from the body; extremely reactive or over reactive sympathetic nervous system that causes extreme stress responses.

Some types of hypertension are renal hypertension, adrenal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and coarctation of the aorta. Renal Hypertension is produced by disease of the kidney. These diseases may have caused a hardening of the renal artery. Pulmonary hypertension is hypertension of the lungs that is caused by lung diseases. Adrenal hypertension is caused by abnormalities of the adrenal cortical. Coarctation of the Aorta the aorta is the result of time, in which the artery and aorta become stiffer, due to increased collagen fibers.


Rarely does hypertension become so critical to cause hospitalization. Hypertension, when untreated and chronic can cause stroke, heart attack, heart failure, damage to the retina and damage to the kidneys

Treatment for hypertension involves life style changes, including exercise quitting smoking, and dietary (low-salt) changes.

Antiypertensives are a class of drugs which act to lower blood pressure. Some drugs that are used in controlling hypertension are: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), alpha blockers, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics.


There is a strong hereditary factor associated with hypertension. A few ways to prevent hypertension are maintaining a healthy weight, eating healthy foods and exercise.

Some environmental factors that may lead to hypertension are obesity, occupation, family size, drinking habits, salt consumption and excessive stress.

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Lotrel capsules


Lotrel, or an Amlodipine and Benazepril combination, belongs to the class of medicines called high blood pressure medicines. It is used to treat high blood pressure. The exact way in which this medicine works is not known. Amlodipine is a type of medic more...



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Nifedipine tablets


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Procardia XL tablets

Procardia XL

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Cozaar tablets


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Losartan tablets


Losartan belongs to a class of drug known as angiotension II receptor antagonists, which directly blocks the angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor). This drug prevents the constriction (narrowing) of blood vessels (veins and arteries). I more...

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