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  Eye diseases

Diseases of the eye are grouped by the area of they eye that is affected and in some cases the cause or type of condition.

Eye diseases Diseases of the eye
Eye diseases

The categories are broken down as follows:

 eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit
 conditions of the conjunctiva (the fragile mucous tissue that covers the inside part of the eye and is attached to the cornea)
 Disorders of sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body
o sclera is the thick outer membrane of the eyeball that forms the white of the eye
o cornea is the transparent convex membrane of the eye that covers the pupil and iris
o iris the colored part of the eye that consists of a diaphragm that surrounds the pupil and regulates the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil
o ciliary the tissue and muscle that surrounds the lens of the eye
 disorders of the lens (part of the eye that focuses light to produce an image on light sensitive cells of the retina)
 Disorders of choroids and retina
o choroids is the membrane between the retina and the whte of the eye, containing large blood vessels and pigmented cells
o Retina is light sensitive tissue in the back of the eye containing rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and sends it to the brain via the optic nerve.
 Disorders of vitreous body and globe
 Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways
 Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction
 Visual disturbances and blindness
 Disorders of eye and adnexa
 Glaucoma

Diseases of the eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit are Hordeolum (a bacterial infection of the sebaceous glands of they eyelids, sty), Chalazion (cyst of the eyelid), Blepharitis (inflammation of eyelids and eyelashes; characterized by white flaky skin near the eyelashes), Entropion and trichiasis, Ectropion, Lagophthalmos, Blepharochalasis, Ptosis, Xanthelasma of eyelid, Parasitic infestation of eyelid in diseases classified elsewhere in the body such as leishmaniasis, loiasis, onchocerciasis, and phthiriasis, infectious diseases classified elsewhere in the body such as herpesviral (herpes simplex) infection, leprosy, molluscum contagiosum, tuberculosis, yaws, zoster, other diseases classified in the body such as Dacryoadenitis, Dysthyroid exophthalmos,

Disorders of conjunctiva are Conjunctivitis — inflammation of the conjunctiva, Pterygium — benign growth of the conjunctiva, Subconjunctival hemorrhage — burst blood vessels on conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis in infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere in the body such as Acanthamoeba, adenoviral follicular (acute), chlamydial, diphtheritic, gonococcal, haemorrhagic (acute)(epidemic), herpesviral [herpes simplex], meningococcal, Newcastle, and zoster

Disorders of sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body are Scleritis — a painful inflammation of the sclera, Keratitis — inflammation of the cornea, Corneal ulcer / Corneal abrasion — loss of the surface epithelial layer of the eye's cornea, Snow blindness / Arc eye — a painful condition caused by exposure of unprotected eyes to bright light, Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy, Fuchs' dystrophy — cloudy morning vision, Keratoconus — the cornea thins and changes shape to be more like a cone than a parabola, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca — dry eyes, Iritis — inflammation of the iris, and Uveitis — inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye,

Disorders of lens are mainly cataracts — the lens becomes opaque,

Disorders of choroid and retina are retinal detachment — the retina detaches from the choroid, leading to blurred and distorted vision, retinoschisis — the retina separates into several layers and may detach, hypertensive retinopathy — burst blood vessels, due to long-term high blood pressure, diabetic retinopathy damage to the retina caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could cause blindness, retinopathy — general term referring to non-inflammatory damage to the retina, retinopathy of prematurity — scarring and retinal detachment in premature babies, age-related macular degeneration — the photosensitive cells in the macula malfunction and over time cease to work, macular degeneration — loss of central vision, due to macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa — genetic disorder; tunnel vision preceded by night-blindness, and macular edema — distorted central vision, due to a swollen macula.

Glaucoma is also referred to as optic neuropathy.

Disorders of vitreous body and globe are floaters — shadow-like shapes which appear singly or together with several others in the field of vision,

A disorders of optic nerve and visual pathway is called Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy with is a genetic disorder that results in the loss of central vision.

Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction are strabismus (Crossed eye/Wandering eye/Walleye) — the eyes do not point in the same direction, ophthalmoparesis — the partial or total paralysis of the eye muscles, progressive external ophthalmoplegia — weakness of the external eye muscles, esotropia — the tendency for eyes to become cross-eyed, and exotropia — the tendency for eyes to look outward.

Disorders of refraction and accommodation are hyperopia (Farsightedness) — the inability to focus on near objects (and in extreme cases, any objects), myopia (Nearsightedness) — distant objects appear blurred, astigmatism — the cornea or the lens of the eye is not perfectly spherical, resulting in different focal points in different planes, anisometropia — the lenses of the two eyes have different focal lengths, and presbyopia — a condition that occurs with growing age and results in the inability to focus on close objects, such as internal ophthalmoplegia.

Disorders that result in visual disturbances and blindness are Amblyopia (lazy eye) — poor or blurry vision due to either no transmission or poor transmission of the visual image to the brain, Leber's congenital amaurosis — genetic disorder; appears at birth, characterised by sluggish or no pupillary responses, Scotoma (blind spot) — an area impairment of vision surrounded by a field of relatively well-preserved vision, Color blindness — the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish, Achromatopsia / Maskun — a low cone count or lack of function in cone cells, Nyctalopia (Nightblindness) — a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in the dark, and blindness — the brain does not receive optical information, through various causes such as, River blindness — blindness caused by long-term infection by a parasetic worm (rare in western societies).

Other disorders of eye and adnexa are red eye — conjunctiva appears red typically due to illness or injury, Argyll Robertson pupil — small, unequal, irregularly shaped pupils, Keratomycosis — fungal infection of the cornea, Xerophthalmia — dry eyes, caused by vitamin A deficiency, and Aniridia — a rare congenital eye condition leading to underdevelopment or even absence of the iris of the eye.

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