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  Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy. After eating, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried to cells throughout the body. Cells use insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them convert blood glucose into energy.

Diabetes Sugar in the blood
Diabetes


People develop diabetes because the pancreas does not make enough insulin or because cells do not use insulin properly, or both. Because of this, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy. Over time, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, which can lead to complications such as heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve problems, gum infections, and the need for possible amputation.

There are three main types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes, is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults. The beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked and destroyed them.

Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form. People can develop it at any age, even during childhood. This form usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells do not use insulin properly.

Gestational diabetes develops during the late stages of pregnancy. Although this form of diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, a woman who has had it is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be characterized as diabetes. Many people with pre-diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years.

Diabetes is diagnosed with the following tests:

A fasting plasma glucose test; an oral glucose tolerance test; and a random plasma glucose test. An estimated 20.8 million people in the United States have diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in whites than in non-whites. Type 2 diabetes is more common in older people, people who are overweight, and occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, some Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islander Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos.

Healthy eating, physical activity, and taking insulin are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is extremely important for the management of Type 1 Diabetes.

Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are also basic management tools for type 2 diabetes, along with oral medication, insulin, or both. The goal of diabetes management is to keep levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as close to the normal range as safely possible.

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Metformin tablets

Metformin

Also known as Glucophage, Metformin is used to treat a type of diabetes called Type 2 Diabetes. Insulin produced by the pancreas of patients with Type 2 Diabetes is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly. Using Metform more...

Actos tablets

Actos

Actos (also known as Pioglitazone) is an antidiabetic agent and is used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. It may be used alone, with insulin, or with another type of diabetes medicine. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you more...

Amaryl tablets

Amaryl

Used to treat Type 2 Diabetes, Sulfonylurea Antidiabetic Agents like Amaryl (Glimepiride) cause your pancreas to release more insulin into the blood stream. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medication or food, pre more...

Avandamet tablet

Avandamet

Avandamet, a combination of Rosiglitazone and Metformin, is used to treat high blood sugar that is caused by Type 2 Diabetes. Rosiglitazone helps your body use insulin better and it reduces the actual amount of insulin in your body. Metformin reduces the more...

Avandia tablets

Avandia

Also called Rosiglitazone, Avandia is used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. It may be used alone or with another type of diabetes medicine. Be sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you have whether it is to medication or food, preservatives, or dyes. Also more...

Glimepiride tablets

Glimepiride

Glimepiride is an oral antidiabetic medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. This drug is used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to treat type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Other medicines for diabetes are sometimes used in more...

Glipizide

Glipizide

Glipizide is in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas that is used to help control blood sugar levels. It is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor if yo more...

Glucophage tablets

Glucophage

Also known as Metformin, Glucophage is used to treat a type of diabetes called Type 2 Diabetes. Insulin produced by the pancreas of patients with Type 2 Diabetes is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly. Using Glucoph more...

Glucotrol tablets

Glucotrol

Glucotrol XL, also known as Glipizide is used to treat a type of diabetes called Type 2 Diabetes. It is part of a group of medicines called Sulfonylureas that help insulin get into the cells where it can work properly to lower blood sugar. Be sure to more...

Glyburide tablets

Glyburide

Glyburide is used to treat a type of diabetes called Type 2 Diabetes. It is part of a group of medicines called Sulfonylureas that help insulin get into the cells where it can work properly to lower blood sugar. Be sure to tell your doctor of any all more...


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